Diversifying Revenue Needed for Institutions of Higher Education

Diversifying Revenue

Today, institutions of higher education are being encouraged and challenged to think creatively about expanding and developing new revenue sources to support the their short-term and long-term goals. Moody’s Investors Services has outlined in its published reports how every traditional revenue stream for colleges and universities is facing some sort of pressure.

Unfortunately, the pressure on all revenue streams and sources is the result of macro-level economic, technological and public opinion shifts, and these changes are largely beyond the control of institutions.

The Moody analysts have cautioned that revenue streams will never flow as robustly as they did before 2008. It’s been stated the change will require a fundamental shift in how colleges and universities operate; one that will require more strategic thinking.

In their studies, Moody’s notes that colleges and universities will have to rely on strategic leaders that are willing to address these challenges through better use of technology to cut costs, create efficiency in their operations, demonstrate value, reach out to new markets, and prioritize its programs. However, in doing so, many of these efforts may create disputes with faculty members or other institutional constituents, unless they are able to get the collective buy-in that has been the staple of higher education governance. But with goals being established and the evolution taking place as part of the process, hopefully, there will be a more widespread understanding on all sides.

Major revenue constraints can be attributed to larger changes in the economic landscape, including lower household incomes, changes and fluctuations in the economic and federal government picture, declines in the number of high school graduates, the emergence of new technologies, and a growing interest in getting the most out of a college education – particularly as it pertains to employment after graduation. A stable fiscal picture and outlook would require improved pricing power, a sustained and truly measured decrease in the unemployment rate, improvements in the housing market, and several years of consistent stock market returns.

The traditional higher education model has been disrupted by the ability of massive open online courses, particularly by the legitimization of online education and other technological innovations. In many ways, this has signaled a fundamental shift in strategy by industry leaders to embrace these technological changes that threaten to destabilize the residential college and university’s business model over the long run.

There are other related challenges facing higher education: the growing profile of student debt, which has topped $1 trillion nationally, and default rates, and pressure on politicians and accreditation agencies to ensure the value of degrees. In addition, an alarm continues to sound over a potential student loan bubble and the diminishing affordability of higher education.

One way for colleges and universities to get students, and their parents, to pay for higher tuition is by demonstrating that the outcomes – including their campus experience, postgraduate employment, graduate school enrollment, and long-term success and happiness – are well worth the tuition and future job pay. Students and their parents want to know, “What am I getting for my investment?” As a result, recruiters have a tougher job “selling” a traditional education with the cost of education continuing to escalate.

But the on campus education and living and learning experience are the “door openers.” As I like to say, “We are a product of our environment.” Making the right friends, building relationships with influential professors, administrators, parents and relatives of friends, and fraternity brothers or sorority sisters all get added into the equation of the student’s environment. In retrospect, students may forget or never use half of what they learn, but the connections and friends they make and the experiences they have while in college are priceless.

Over 1/3 of the colleges and universities in the nation are experiencing some sort of financial crisis. Many have gone from operating full operating budgets to a comfortable black to a severely red. And cash reserves have dropped, as well as endowments.

Without a doubt, the university must find new revenue sources. Attracting more out-of-state and international students is one additional source of revenue for these institutions.

We must never lose sight of the fact of the importance of investing in higher education. Educating the young is of primary importance. Devising ways to maximize time and money, such as integrating class projects and research that might result in publication is another alternative to consider.

Allowing and/or expanding commercialism on the campus may provide added sources of revenue. Examples could include allowing corporate naming rights to athletic facilities or increased advertising signage inside arenas and stadiums. This may seem drastic and some may even say, “You have to pick your poison” in being creative to increase your revenue streams.

Attempting to reduce the university’s “discount rate,” the percentage of the total tuition bill for the entire student body that the university waives to grant financial aid to its students is one possibility. But that can be risky business. Any move to reduce the discount rate potentially upsets an exceedingly delicate balance. Looking to attract families that are able and willing to pay full or near full tuition, while simultaneously making the school accessible to less wealthy students, and hitting the right mark, granting merit aid to lure high-potential students who might later benefit the school and broader community, may be one possibility to work in achieving a better balance among the many factors that feed enrollment. Additionally, stepping-up the fundraising efforts to offset any potential rising discount rate may also be helpful.

Another factor to think about is the amount of construction the institution may be having on campus, especially during campus tours, to determine the effect, it may or has caused in any dips in the recruiting process. Even though construction on campus is a sign of growth and improvement, in the short-term it is not always the most attractive thing for students to see and hear on campus, or experience during a campus tour with their parents.

Institutions of higher education must also anticipate any approaching demographic shifts. They may have to grapple with an economic and social environment in which more families bargain for the best deals among different schools. If this is the case, the institutions should consider making their best offers up-front first and try to avoid drawn-out negotiations.

Students are creating more choices for themselves and they have more access to more choices. The internet makes it easier for students to research and apply to more schools.

Some of the private institutions have held back from the tuition-hiking trend, and some have even cut tuition costs in an effort to attract more students. Other schools have taken more unconventional measures, such as freezing tuition, offering three-year degree programs, or giving students four-year graduation guarantees. They are doing this with the goal of increasing enrollment levels that will more than offset the reductions being made, thereby providing more overall revenue without sacrificing the student’s education.

But also since the economic downturn, private colleges and universities across the nation have redoubled efforts to cut their operating costs, improve their efficiency, and enhance their affordability in order to stay within reach of families from all backgrounds. You cannot lose sight of that. Making it work has to be done on both ends; cutting costs and increasing revenues.

Other strategies that could be considered to increase the enrollment and revenue streams at institutions of higher education could include the following:

  • Segmenting search to target upper profile students with different messages;
  • Increasing scholarship levels (while still maintaining net revenue needs);
  • Targeting out-of-state students or students outside of traditional markets;
  • Targeting high school honors programs;
  • Holding a scholarship recognition day;
  • Stressing off-campus opportunities such as internships and study abroad;
  • Promoting graduate school placements and outcomes; and
  • Developing high profile academic majors, pre-professional programs, or new majors and programs to support enrollment growth.

Additional considerations for increasing revenue streams might include:

  • Review the individual educational programs in-place and revenues provided by each and coverage of direct costs and determine what changes should be made, if any;
  • Acceleration of the 4 year degree programs into 3 to 3 ½ year programs to save on tuition and utilize it as a marketing tool for recruiting, but do so without short changing the student’s education;
  • Providing an automatic 2-year graduate scholarship at the university for students who enroll in a 4 year undergrad program and meet and maintain a defined GPA level and other pre-defined standards and goals of the university. Use as a tool for marketing and recruitment;
  • Having a full-time grant application aid/seeker for the university searching for state and federal funds, as well as working with faculty and staff to develop research projects for funding and using as educational programs for the students;
  • Establishing joint and cooperative programs with other universities in the US and abroad for recruiting;
  • Consider an overall re-evaluation of the recruiting process for identifying and “going after” potential students, thereby expanding the horizons and outreach;
  • Obtaining more exposure on a “national and multi-state” level;
  • Determine if any new programs should be added, programs dropped, or enhanced and/or expanded;
  • Develop tools for “presenting a plan” and a “comprehensively designed package” for financing and paying the cost for education;
  • Reaching-out to alumni and friends for enhanced ways to provide for contributions to the university through annuities, insurance, and other charitable giving techniques and products; and
  • Developing relationships with corporate sponsors for grants and contributions and placements for graduating students.

Conclusion

For the suggestions mentioned about possible new revenue source considerations to support the institution’s short-term and long-term goals, it will be important to develop predictive financial modeling tools for testing the proposed changes and outcomes to the enrollment levels and the projected effects on the revenue streams and the overall bottom line.

In doing all of this we must never lose sight of the fact that education prepares graduates to lead lives of achievement, contribution and meaning. And, as I like to say, “The Students will become a Product of their Environment.”

Non-boundary Governance of Entrepreneurship Education within Higher Education

Introduction

The focus of entrepreneurship and innovation education and research at institutions of higher education ipso facto implies a wish to enhance the quality of graduate and post-graduate business venturing prospects as well as business know-how in the normally pre-entrepreneurial stage. This should happen within a sense-making framework that integrates the research and education agenda for graduate entrepreneurship. Further, an entrepreneurship and innovation education and research approach should be followed that guide the content of the competitive landscape in which the prospective entrepreneur will function and not lag behind and thereby looses its relevance.

Of particular importance to entrepreneurial education lies the ability of institutions of higher education to shift and circulate information and technologies across faculties despite different academic disciplines, professional codes, and academic language that act as academic venture boundaries. These boundaries frustrate the need to integrate entrepreneurship education throughout a higher education institution, thus inhibiting the smooth functioning of entrepreneurial education. Thus, a need exists to overcome these barriers by amalgamating the various faculties socially across faculties whereby entrepreneurial educators could play “bridging roles” by acting as “boundary spanners” between faculties and forming close cohesive networks through the whole institution. This will enable educators in entrepreneurial higher education to link otherwise unconnected faculties to facilitate the development of unique knowledge and access to special knowledge and opportunities. This create an advantage over the traditional structural design where educators were only part of a specific faculty cohesive group.

In the new economy, technology and knowledge production on which it is based, have become an intrinsic part of the economy. As a result, it may be envisaged that education and research in institutions of higher education will need to support the whole technology development process, which also include the process of innovation. In this regard, it may be more appropriate to develop education and research policies that addresses the whole technology-innovation chain instead of merely the research-development chain, as the research-innovation chain involves taking ideas, turning them into technologies and taking these, through research and development, out of the laboratory and proving them in real-world situations.

Purpose

The aim of this paper is to propose an educational governance framework for entrepreneurship and innovation at institutions of higher education to foster the upgrading of entrepreneurial competencies in students whilst preserving the traditional academic competencies of students and the provision of unique entrepreneurial opportunities to students to perform entrepreneurial tasks.

Non-boundary governance

Firstly, with regards to the governance of entrepreneurship education at higher education institutions it is proposed that it should be managed by an “inter-faculty-inter-industry committee” (boundary-spanning leadership is provided) in order to achieve a greater measure of integration (common building blocks is created) in terms of generic entrepreneurial skills requirements that cross over academic disciplines, whilst simultaneously making provision for the unique disciplinary requirements and needs of specific disciplines. This implies a shift away from the traditional independent faculty approach (functional myopia) which lacks commonly shared interests that is adopted by most universities and substituting it for a new re-configured structure able to create entrepreneurial value through a holistic, yet focussed approach (integrated birds eye view) among various faculties. This largely represents the antithesis of the traditional academic governance approach followed at the majority of institutions of higher education. However, it is considered necessary, as it is able to strike out higher potential for entrepreneurship and innovation directions through the whole academic supply chain. In essence a virtual horizontal department – operating on the basis of value chains – is created, without necessarily increasing the staff operational cost to the institution. Creating a virtual horizontal department will ensure that all employees (lecturing staff) interpret the market signals better, and ensure that customer and entrepreneurial concerns become known to all faculties, regardless of their function in the university leading to a better customer focus. By establishing an inter-faculty-inter-industry committee, opportunity is created for healthy and critical curriculum content debate (knowledge interaction), whilst module developers become better informed on borderline subjects and aspects. Even more essential is the protection that will be provided to ensure that the disciplinary, inter-disciplinary and trans-disciplinary entrepreneurship field of study is not vulnerable to the “tactic of isolation” by claiming academic ownership in one faculty.

Secondly, entrepreneurship and innovation cannot flourish within institutional isolation. Cross-fertilisation of national and international academic and industry business networks is required not only to build leading edge relevant curriculum content, but also to keep up to date with the dynamics in the field. In this regard it would be important to create entrepreneurial knowledge champions in each of the faculties, whilst still operating under the academic guidance of an Entrepreneurial Centre of Excellence that could coordinate all activities and ensure proper co-operation between faculties. In essence, the Entrepreneurial Centre of Excellence’s focus is to orchestrate the entrepreneurial functions in all the faculties. This will further ensure that the “big divide” in entrepreneurial education between faculties is largely eliminated. With regard to its functions within the institution the Entrepreneurial Centre of Excellence’s role could be to:

·Establish an operating and repertoire-building entrepreneurship and innovation education framework and technique approach applying to real-time methodologies;

·Facilitate new entrepreneurial and innovation horizons for the institution through the diffusion of new information, the establishment of dialogue processes, and the exploration of new required dynamic capabilities;

·Build entrepreneurial talent for intellectual entrepreneurship leadership; and

·Establish bonding entrepreneurial networks that form the nucleus of the core of the university’s entrepreneurial value system through web-connectivity, conferences and seminars, mobilising critical mass of people for innovation and the management of Memorandums of Understanding.

Conclusion

This paper emphasised the need to create governance mechanisms that could properly address the disciplinary, interdisciplinary and trans-disciplinary nature of entrepreneurial education in higher education institutions. It proposed the establishment of a joint-responsibility structure able to span the entrepreneurial holes in institutions of higher education whilst receiving guidance from a centrally Centre of Excellence that could coordinate all entrepreneurial education and ensure cooperation by all academic faculties. Implementation of these proposals could be done at minimum cost to the institution.

Open Source Software in Higher Education

The higher education sector is quite unlike other industries. It has its own processes and a different set of demands. Most commercial proprietary application vendors develop their applications focused on a wider domain spread across industries. This, academics complain, creates a distinct disconnect between software vendors and the end-users in academia.

To overcome these shortcomings, the education industry started looking to “open source” as an alternate model. Around a decade back, institutions started debating total cost of ownership in adopting an open source based community approach vis-à-vis proprietary applications, viability of open source based business models, sustainability and security issues.

The success of community developed open source software is quite well established. Linux and Apache are ample proof of its success. A similar trend, though not that widespread in its reach, can be traced to the development of community projects in education like the Moodle and Sakai.

Through the course of its formative years, the open source community based approach in education has developed several alternative models. Some of these models and schools of thought have thrived and been implemented successfully across a significant spectrum of the industry. Progress and success in open source projects like the Sakai, Moodle, Kuali, uPortal, Shibboleth, and many more are being closely watched by the industry.

Community Source Model

One school of thought believes that open source sharing is more a philosophical approach than a viable alternative. The adoption of open source in higher education seems to suggest otherwise. FLOSS (Free/Libre and Open Source Software) communities are thriving well in learning environments too.

The FLOSS model has been extensively used in initiatives like the MIT OpenCourseWare and Open Source Biology. Project Gutenberg, the Wikipedia, The Open Dictionary project are prime examples of how open source has been successfully adapted to education initiatives.

In a community source project, multiple institutions come together to partner in the project. All partners contribute financially as well as in employing human resources for the effort. In the early stages, the partnering institutions provide all design and development efforts and only in subsequent stages is the project opened to the broader community. This way, the initial support is secured and the institutions have a substantial influence in deciding how the application is modeled and designed.

The initial focus of community source projects is on collaboration between institutions. The focus in the crucial first stages is therefore to form a common economic outlook and an appropriate administrative framework rather than forming a community around a shared code. Most community based open source projects slowly migrate to open source in the later stages.

The Sakai project, for example, started as a joint effort between four institutions (Michigan, Indiana, MIT and Stanford). The initial agenda was to set up a framework of common goals that would produce appropriate software based on an agreed list of objectives. The scope for participation was later increased by forming the Sakai Educational Partners Program (SEPP), whereby other institutions can join and participate in the community for a small fee.

The Current Landscape

An education enterprise like any organization has its own needs ranging from resource planning to budgeting. Additionally, they have typical requirements like the need to integrate with financial aid programs of the government, multiple payroll cycles, and student information systems (SIS) that handle admissions, grades, transcripts, student records as well as billing. All these call for robust ERP systems. Until recently, colleges and universities mostly rely on either custom-developed systems that are more than 15 years old, or have transitioned to commercial products from vendors like Oracle, SAP, PeopleSoft or vendors like SunGard that are geared towards the higher education market.

Kuali Financials was borne due to the lack of open source solutions Enterprise applications in the higher education sector are comprised of a mix of some proprietary application vendors and some key open source community initiatives. PeopleSoft, Oracle, SunGard and Datatel are some key vendors that offer tightly integrated ERP packages for the education sector.

Recent consolidation in the industry, like the acquisition of PeopleSoft by Oracle and of WebCT, Angel, etc by Blackboard, has caused considerable unease in the education fraternity. The concern stems from the fear that the trend of consolidation would lead to the monopoly of a few key vendors. The plans of these vendors to offer tightly integrated systems heightens the fear that this will provide an unfair leverage to these vendors as it would extend the community’s dependence on them.

One area of concern about proprietary applications is a seeming disconnect between the industry and software application developers. Institutions also have strong reservations about the currently available administrative software and course management systems. The feeling is that applications provided by vendors such as SAP and PeopleSoft are adapted from other industries and does not work well for educational enterprises. Moreover, the proprietary nature of the applications implies that the source code is not available and customization efforts involve substantial costs.

In the context of such a wide breadth of requirements, open source can prove to be a viable alternative. In fact, these constraints provided the impetus for open source initiatives in higher education. Some of the success has helped provide a strong foundation to building an alternative support model for the education industry.

In the Sakai project, the participating institutions decided to integrate and synchronize their educational software into a pre-integrated collection of open source tools termed Collaborative Learning Environment (CLE). Sakai has active implementations running at multiple institutes including the University of Michigan and Indiana University.

In parallel, Sakai also established a set of activity based communities that have spawned an active cooperation between the industry and application vendors. The Sakai Educational Partners Program allows educational institutions to participate in the program for a small fee. Besides, there are the Sakai Commercial Affiliates, who offer fee-based services for installation, integration and support..

Kuali, on the other hand, mainly addresses aspects of educational administration. The Kuali Financial System (KFS) is the most prominent application. It handles administrative and operational tasks like general accounting, purchasing, salary and benefits, budgeting, asset management and grants. The system is designed around modules that enable it to be tweaked to work with existing commercial applications. For example, at Indiana University, Kuali applications work together with PeopleSoft’s HR and student system. The Kuali Foundation is a non-profit consortium of multiple universities and some hardware and software companies. The Kuali Commercial Affiliate program operates on similar lines like its Sakai counterpart. The community has been growing and now includes the University of California, Cornell, Michigan State University, San Joaquin Delta College (Calif.), and The University of Arizona.

Significantly, according to the 2008 Campus Computing Survey, around 13.8 percent of the survey participants have already identified an Open Source LMS – either Moodle or Sakai – as the campus standard LMS.

Besides these, several other projects offer SIS functionality. For example, openSIS manages student demographics, scheduling, attendance, grades, transcripts, and health records, and its parent company makes add-on modules to support additional features like disciplinary tracking, billing, food service, and bulk email/SMS messaging for emergency contact.

Other Key intiaitives are

JaSig community developing uPortal, and CAS (Central Authentication Services) two components serving as input to Kuali Rice.

Internet2 – A consortium led by universities working in partnership with industry and government to develop and deploy advanced network applications and technologies including products such as Shibboleth and Grouper

Open Source Curricula

As with any “open source” activity, open source curricula by its very definition is one that can be freely used, distributed and modified. A model like this would seemingly be antithetic to the concept of higher education as it strikes at the credibility of the education environment. Campus education is designed to operate as a structured learning methodology. The concept of community collaboration involving academics and students on the same platform brings a lot of unpredictability into the scenario

However, FLOSS communities (Free/Libre and Open Source Software) in education have proved to be quite successful. A key principle of this learning approach is its root in adapting it to the context of ones’ experience. With its stress on learners and their preferences, this learning approach focuses more on learning by collaboration, communication and sharing.

Significant initiatives include the Connexions Project at Rice University, the OpenCourseWare project at MIT and the social learning medium of Wikipedia.

The FLOSS approach in higher education has been operating in combination with traditional teacher centered approaches. The objectives of the FLOSS approach are not to replace traditional methods but to achieve synergies in combination and offer the learner an enhanced learning environment.

The ‘FLOSS-like education transfer report’ published in September 2008, as part of the FLOSSCOM project, notes that FLOSS communities can create effective learning environments. The study has also come up with three different approaches that could be combined effectively with traditional teaching approaches.

Economic Models of Open Source

One aspect that clearly marks the adoption of open source as a winner is the fact that in this scenario, the developers are most often also the users of the software. This removes the perceived disconnect between the developer community and the end-users unlike in the case of proprietary applications. However, this is less evident in the case of administrative applications like payroll or HR. In such cases, adoption of open source has to be a directed process.

Initiatives like the Kuali project have proved that open source can also build up sustainable models that provide adequate support mechanisms. In such models, there is active collaboration between the community that comprises not only developers and end-users, but also an extended support group comprising commercial vendors. These support groups are available to offer timely support to mission critical applications. The community approach also ensures that the code is not closed and that an active community of interest ensures that enhancements keep happening as necessitated.

Projects like uPortal have been developed with minimal resources but are deployed across hundreds of institutions. The community approach has proved sustainable as in the case of the Sakai project. In terms of funding, the Sakai project garnered an investment of $6.8 million over two years.

The viability of the open source, community based model stems not from the monetary or cost aspects but principally the adaptability that it offers. The debate over cost of ownership between commercially available proprietary software and open source applications is yet to be proved empirically. However, the fact that the code is open means it can be easily adapted to suit new requirements and does not involve significant investments in terms of customization or enhancements. This does make significant economic sense in the longer term.

The case for open source in higher education is nicely documented in a study by the Alliance for Higher Education Competitiveness. In a 2005 study report titled, ‘Will Open Source Software Become an Important Institutional Strategy in Higher Education?’ Rob Abel notes how open source is a “great fit for higher education”. The study, based on an analysis of open source projects in education, opines that the community-based approach is an interesting model that also helps reduce the inherent risks in adopting an open source approach.

As for the cost model, the study notes that while open source has helped generate cost savings in the range of 20 to 30 percent for the commercial sector, the same may not be entirely true in education. The community-based approach, the writer notes, with its associated participation fees, may prove only marginally beneficial in terms of costs. Institutions that have their own infrastructure and resources may however, benefit from substantially reduced costs from their open source initiatives.

The Future

Open source has proved to be adaptable and a reliable platform for collaboration and learning. In their quest for ideal application software to handle administrative, operational and education platforms, most CIOs are looking at interoperability, reliability and scalability of applications. Applications like the Sakai and Kuali have proved beyond doubt that open source applications offer great configurability.

Development communities and the support of commercial vendors, as in the case of Kuali and Sakai, fuel a greater rate of innovation. Moreover, the advantage that is offered by collaboration also provides an impetus to continued improvement of the system. Support systems and enhancements for future requirements are ensured.

On the question of how to approach or adopt open source as a model, the answer would depend on the needs, the infrastructure and the means available to an institution. The community development model has shown that costs can be broadly distributed amongst participants. Experience shows that universities and colleges can collaborate to produce open source software that caters to their needs in a way that is superior to some commercial products. The collaborative model enables educational institutions to pool their financial and technical resources. Moreover, a larger community ensures that the applications are tested in a variety of testing environments, thus aiding in building robust solutions.

In term of core academics, learning systems will evolve to accommodate formative assessments and evaluation outside the classroom. Many higher education institutions have taken the lead of MIT and are offering online course materials that are accessible by anyone, free of cost. It has been adopted at Yale, Notre Dame, Tufts and Stanford School of Engineering, to name a few. The United Nations has launched an initiative that would leverage social media technologies and ideas to offer higher education opportunities to people who would otherwise not be able to afford the costs.

Commercially, open source projects have taken their first steps in the marketplace. The model is evolving aided by some significant commercial vendor backing. For the community-based open source approach to prosper, substantial financial backing is an absolute necessity to prevent it from faltering and to avoid the pitfalls that arise form source code being easily modifiable and rebranded by a different vendor. From the commercial perspective, projects like Sakai and the Kuali Foundation are likely to thrive as they have substantial stakeholders from both the academic and the corporate world.

What could derail further adoption? There are several potential risk areas:

  • Lack of understanding of entry points for adoption
  • Lack of support to adopt the applications
  • Minimal staff to support the applications
  • Lack of training / documentation to train staff
  • A “runaway” project that consumes much press and develops a negative bias toward the project

Many of these risks may be mitigated though co-operative initiatives between the foundations developing the open source solutions and commercial affiliates looking to support the solutions – and develop complementation solutions. Some examples:

  • Further publicity through conventional, non-education related channels such as Google and industry-based sites such as edu1world
  • Furrther innovation and cooperation – whether through ‘summer of code’ collaborations; or community collaborations that will transform the current listservs to more accessible forums
  • Commercial affiliates offering training and webinars
  • Commercial affiliates offering ease of use entry points, such as pre-installed servers or virtual images that can be downloaded and used out of the box

In conclusion, open source initiatives in higher education have a long way to go before they enter the commercial mainstream in a significant fashion. However, with industry and academic collaboration, it has a great potential to change the higher education landscape in the longer term.

business dollars business stick business sonic business widget business folder business gun business rex business duck business cache business groove business worth business omatic business gang business visual business battle business kiss business orama business member business dish business request business echo SEO Marketing Asian Beauty Products Business Information Center Nest Cam Indoor Nice Wedding Photographer channel girl Photoshop free room girl Skin Care Products Living Room Decoration Home Inspection Tips General Products Marketing Products Online Business Opportunities asia miss Infographic Design Baby Healthy Baby Accessories baby sexy Baby Furniture Baby Clothing Baby Products Baby Shop hi movie talk hi movie sex hi movie comedy hi movie sexy hi movie room hi movie show Online Home Inspector hi video movie hi vide ogood Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Online Shirt Shopping Shop jewellery and bags Online Shop Accessories Shopping Fashion Style legal adaptive legal buller legal captive legal cheapest legal clearance legal commission legal construct legal millions legal measure The Business Law Bankruptcy Lawyer Law Firms Legal Information Attorney Best Lawyers The Best Advice Lawyer Lawyer Requirements Lawyer Employment Law Reports Best Employment Lawyers interior designer web interior designer web interior designer web interior designer web interior designer web Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers business shuffle business precision business flavor business verde business intergrity business gratis business epic business anchor business clearance business eastside business corporation business feature business cellar business plum business divine business pronto business carnival business east bay business dodge business prestige business razor business atlantic business husky business remarkable business fighter business quantum business courier business construct business sparkle business rainforest business falcon business lightning business blod business downtown business curious businessafter businesss alvage business overnight business captive business amazing business abundant business designing business blender business imagine business just business surreal shoppinghusky shoppingnations shoppingremarkable shoppingfighter shoppingquantum shoppingpeach shoppingpresident shoppingsparkle shoppingrainforest shoppinglightning shoppingdowntown shoppingraven shoppingsalvage shoppingpriority shoppingmystical shoppingpermanent travellightning travellowprice travelmeasure travelmillions travelmystical travelnations travelnature travelnobel travelnormal travelnorthamerican traveloffline travelomega traveloneday travelouter travelpickup travelplatinum travelplum travelprecision travelprestige travelpriority travelpronto travelquantum travelrainforest travelraven travelremarkable travelrhino travelsalvage travelscribe travelshuffle travelsleuth travelsnapshot travelsouthbeach travelsparkle travelsunflower traveltopsecret travelurban travelyankee legalagenda legalcupcake legaldodge legaleastbay legalescrow legalgecko legalglory legalguerilla legallimited legalmystical Interior Designer Web Interior Designer Web Interior Designer Web Interior Designer Web Interior Designer Web Interior Designer Web Interior Designer Web Interior Designer Web Interior Designer Web Interior Designer Web Personal product Sell Products Online Marketing Product Product Research Analyst Product Research Facilitator The Food Products General Products Beauty Products Business beauty product skin care beauty salon product online product Marketing Products to Advertise online shop originals Product New Products Products Definition gigi hadid super model product marketing Personal Products Booking Apartments Definition of Apartment Secure Apartment Design Apartments girl room decoration free information Apartment Asia Apartment Girl Makeup Products Girl Clothing Girl Cookies chat girl chat adult channel asia Girl Dress Cosplay Japanese School Girl Dress apartment for girl Apartment Brokers Apartment Nice Web Hosting Themes The Best Savings Rates Shop Personal Loans Chiropractic Tables Skin Care in Centrum Cher Client Women's shoes Solar Installation Medical Weight Loss Clinic The Benefits Of Moving Insurance Online Dating Group Auto International All Medicine Reviews Fashion Clothing Style Management Consulting Real estate Fishing Games Travel Insurance Cheap Hotels and Flights Vacations and Travel Deals Travel Tips Travel Guides Travel Insurance Find Cheap Hotel Discounts Free Mobile Games Free Online Slots Games Game Mania Shooting Simulator Game Online Educational Games Play Free Online Slot Machine Games Online Games For Kids Free Online Learning Games and Apps Play Boat Games Online Free Mobile Games Download Free Games Free Online Slots Games Shooting Simulator Shooting Simulator Game Online Educational Games Play Free Online Slot Machine Games Online Games For Kids Games and Apps Free Online Games Best games for Android Download Free Games Best Logistics Software Best Application Comparison Shipping Software Solutions Logistics Management Software Systems Software Developers Software Engineer Software Developer Education Android Software Applications Most Popular Software Applications Cell Phone Monitoring Software Software Technology Technology Applications Phone System Software Information Technology Spy Phone Technology download Smartphone Spy Phone Technology Logistics Software Systems Software Developer Education Android Software Applications Cell Phone Monitoring Software Technology Applications Shipping Software Solutions Shipping Software Solution Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers Find Web Developers fashion world fashion bible fashion jobs fashion designer fashion art fashion apps fashion advice fashion brands fashion books fashion buyer fashion courses fashion capital fashion clothes fashion dresses fashion events fashion editor fashion fair fashion history fashion ideas fashion industry Veterinary Products Animal Feed Supplement Pet Shampoo Pet Collars Veterinary Drugs Pet Leads Veterinary Instrument Animal Feed Supplement Animal Calcium Supplement Antioxidant Supplement Pet Collars Chain Collar Flat Collars Pet Collars By Material Pet Care Products Shipping Software Solutions World Wide Technology List of Information Technology Master of Technology in IT Software Quantum Digital Forensics Forensic Technology Software Reference Library What Is Technology World Wide Technology List of Information Technology IT Staffing and Solutions Master of Technology in IT Software Quantum Digital Forensics Forensic Technology Software Reference Library teachers for technology Science Education Cell Phone Monitoring Software Software Technology Technology Applications Best Application Comparison Technology Definition Technology in Business Technology in Education Technology in Medical Technology Software What Is Technology Technology Software the best online casino online casino games Best Gaming Experience Play Online Casino Games Online Casino Gambling Casino best casino gambling Slots gambling Online Casino Reviews The Best Online Casino Play Online Casino Games Play Online Casino Play Online Pokies Real Money Slots Online Slots and Casino Play Online Slots Real Money Casinos Play Slot Machines Online Real Casino Jackpot Party Casino Slots Real Casino Slots Apps Online Lottery Games Heating Systems Home Automation Home Security Products Home Automation System Building Supplies Building Designer Building Consultants Bathroom Accessories Appliance Repairs Equipment Hire Extensions & Additions Floor Coating Products Furniture Removal Garden Maintenance Garden Designer Interior Designer Interior Decorating Kitchen Design Landscape Construction Landscape Design Project Management Landscaping & Gardening Patio Cover Installations Tile Suppliers Home Access Control Home Alarm Systems Home Intercom Systems Home Security Card Access Plumbing Installation Home Entertainment System Home Improvement Mistakes Home Improvement Leads Home Improvement Tips Home Improvement Grants Home Improvement Stores Home Improvement Projects Green Home Improvements real estate houses for sale property for sale property sales buying a house homes for rent commercial building rental properties commercial real estate commercial property real estate property real estate companies apartments for sale real estate business business property commercial space house real estate real estate listings house listings education law education loan education library service education meaning education personnel education technology Natural Health Magazine Bedroom Designs interior design ideas bedroom Premature ejaculation Health Tonics Herbs Natural Health Magazine Electrical System Vehicle The Shop Bulk Online Premature ejaculation www.777chat.info www.777good.info www.twshowkiss.info www.twtalk080.info www.twavtalk.info www.twshowlove.info www.twavsexy.info www.twavroom.info www.twavmovie.info www.twsexy888.info www.twsexyadult.info www.adult506.info The Legal Adviser www.twavshow.info www.twavnice.info www.asia222.info lawyer Legal advisor The Lawyer Portal good tube Drug Abuse Information Travel Guides Hotel and Travel Corporate Apartment Apartment For Rent Apartment Finder Grand Apartments Great Apartments Apartment Guide Find Luxury Apartments Apartments Interior Design Interior Design Classes Apartment Therapy Interior Design Firm Small Apartment Design Apartment Information Apartments General Information Perfect Studio Apartment All Apartments Ideas Furnishing Small Apartments Apartment Search Apartment Security Apartment Safety Considerations in Apartment High Security Apartment Find Apartment Brokers Apartment Brokers Rental Apartment Broker Apartment Searching Apartment Budgeting Basics First Apartment Budgeting The Apartment Building Best Apartment Broker Best Apartment Agency Finding Your Apartment Finding Apartment Find a Cheap Apartment Furnished apartments Find the Right Apartment tips best apartment hunting best apartment hunting Secure Apartment Living Secure Apartment Complex download plugin Browser Plugins Internet Explorer download Browser download plugin photoshop download plugin adobe flash download plugin flash player download plugin pcsx2 download plugins download plugin youtube download plugin firefox download plugin facebook Download Firefox free Web browser Download free browser Download Puffin Browser Download Software Download Free Software Download WhatsApp Download Free Antivirus Free Online Downloader Online YouTube Downloader Program Doctors The Program Doctor Doctor of Medicine Program Doctor of Philosophy Program Doctors Skin Care Doctors Skin Care Products Education Doctor Doctor of Physical Therapy Doctor of Psychology Mental Health Doctors Medical Specialists Nutritious Milk Substitute Open Heart Alternatives Cancer: Second Opinions Penis Curved When Erect Diarrhea Solutions Severe Aortic Stenosis? Benefits of Probiotics Get Help with ED Diabetes Management Probiotic Supplements Low Sugar Dairy Drink How Drugs Rewire Brains product beuty face mask moisturizer skin care cosmetics eye cream best face cream skin care routine best skin care products face cream best anti aging cream facial cleanser anti aging cream best anti wrinkle cream skincare for men beauty products face moisturizer best eye cream for wrinkles anti wrinkle cream skin care products moisturizing natural skin care anti aging boots skin care organic skin care best wrinkle cream skin care set wrinkle cream best anti aging serum best anti wrinkle eye cream best anti aging eye cream eye wrinkle cream skin treatment best skin care eye wrinkles anti wrinkle eye cream skin care brands anti aging serum natural skin care products oily skin care natural beauty products skin cleanser acne skin care skin cream anti aging eye cream compare the market make money online market research marketing strategy management jobs what is market research research jobs marketing strategies how to get money portfolio management internet marketing market research jobs marketing companies investment companies best business ideas market analysis market research companies market researcher online poll marketing tools product marketing market research methods types of market research what is investment market research examples research analyst search marketing market report market research agency secondary market research marketing job marketing analyst market research analyst research companies market research questions how to market your business investment firms sell products online trend market research market research business online marketing jobs how to sell a product selling a company equity research analyst market research report marketing report qualitative market research internet marketing jobs market research websites market research opportunities market research analysis market research industry Heating Systems Home Automation Home Security Products Home Automation System Building Supplies Building Designer Building Consultants Bathroom Accessories Appliance Repairs Equipment Hire Extensions & Additions Floor Coating Products Furniture Removal Garden Maintenance Garden Designer Interior Designer Interior Decorating Kitchen Design Landscape Construction Landscape Design Project Management Landscaping & Gardening Patio Cover Installations Tile Suppliers Home Access Control Home Alarm Systems Home Intercom Systems Home Security Card Access Plumbing Installation Home Entertainment System Home Improvement Mistakes Home Improvement Leads Home Improvement Tips Home Improvement Grants Home Improvement Stores Home Improvement Projects Green Home Improvements Action Movies Animated Movies Top Rated Movies Most Popular Movies Romantic Comedy Movie Fantasy Movies Horror Movies Heating Systems Home Automation Home Security Products Home Automation System Building Supplies Building Designer Building Consultants Bathroom Accessories Appliance Repairs Equipment Hire Extensions & Additions Floor Coating Products Furniture Removal Garden Maintenance Garden Designer Interior Designer Interior Decorating Kitchen Design Landscape Construction Landscape Design Project Management Landscaping & Gardening Patio Cover Installations Tile Suppliers Home Access Control Home Alarm Systems Home Intercom Systems Plumbing Installation Home Entertainment System Box Office Movies Most Popular Movies Top Rated Movies Lowest Rated Movies Booking Apartments Definition of Apartment Secure Apartment Design Apartments Corporate Apartment Apartment For Rent Apartment Finder Grand Apartments Great Apartments Apartment Guide Find Luxury Apartments Apartments Interior Design Interior Design Classes Apartment Therapy Interior Design Firm Small Apartment Design Apartment Information Apartments General Information Perfect Studio Apartment All Apartments Ideas Furnishing Small Apartments Apartment Search Apartment Security Apartment Safety Considerations in Apartment Garden Maintenance